The advantages of the use of IR procedures are the minimally invasive nature of the procedures resulting in lower morbidity and shorter hospitals stays.


  • Urethral stenting for malignancy/strictures

  • Urethral stricture ballooning

  • Ureteral stenting for stones/strictures/infection surgical vs. endoscopic placement

  • Diagnostic and therapeutic cystoscopy

  • PCNL (percutaneous) and SNL (surgically assisted) nephrolithotomy for massive, complicated nephroliths

  • PCCL (percutaneous cystolithotomy): minimally invasive removal of stones

  • Lithotripsy for urethral stones

  • ESWL (extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy) for nephroliths

  • Voiding urethrohydropulsion

  • Urethral obstructions relieved with guidewires reduces trauma to the urethra

  • Endoscopic Sclerotherapy for idiopathic renal hematuria

  • Hydraulic occluder placement for refractory incontinence

  • Hydraulic occluder inflation/deflation

  • Urethral bulking agent injections for USMI refractory to medical management

  • Ectopic ureter ablation: available in both males and females

  • Laser ablation of persistent mesonephric remnant and hymens

  • Percutaneous cystotomy tube placement

  • SUB (subcutaneous ureteral bypass)



  • IHPSS (Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt): PTCE percutaneous transjugular embolization with caval stent placement and delivery of coils

  • HAVM (Hepatic arteriovenous malformation): Glue embolization via percutaneous access

  • Percutaneous biliary diversion tube

  • Chemoembolization of non-resectable hepatic neoplasia



  • Epistaxis: embolization for persistent epistaxis (benign or neoplastic)

  • Intra-arterial stem cell delivery for CKD, PLN

  • Vascular access port placement

  • Triple lumen catheter placement

  • Embolization for arteriovenous malformations

  • Cardiologic interventions: refer to our Cardiology department (or link in here)


Interventional oncology

  • Chemoembolization of non-resectable hepatic neoplasia

  • Transcaval stenting for heart base tumor, relief of Budd-Chiari syndrome Intra-arterial chemotherapy delivery for TCC of bladder, urethra and prostate

  • Urethral stenting



  • Tracheal stenting

  • Endoscopic tracheal tumor removal

  • Bronchial/tracheal foreign body retrieval

  • Nasopharyngeal stenting

  • Nasopharyngeal balloon dilation

  • Thoracic duct and branch glue embolization for persistent chylothorax Pleuroport placement for chronic pleural effusion



  • Colonic stenting for neoplasia/strictures

  • Polypectomy (bladder, esophageal, gastric and colonic)

  • Esophageal dilation PEG tubes<

  • Esophageal stenting